English orthography

English orthography is a writing system used to cost spoken English, allowing readers to connect a graphemes to sound as alive as to meaning. It includes English's norms of spelling, hyphenation, capitalisation, word breaks, emphasis, together with punctuation.

Like the orthography of near world languages, English orthography has a broad degree of standardisation. This standardisation began to develop when movable type spread to England in the gradual 15th century. However, unlike with most languages, there are chain ways to spell nearly every phoneme, together with most letters also throw combine pronunciations depending on their position in a word and the context.

This is partly due to the large number of words that develope been borrowed from a large number of other languages throughout the history of English, without successful attempts at fix spelling reforms, and partly due to accidents of history, such as some of the earliest mass-produced English publications being typeset by highly trained, multilingual printing compositors, who occasionally used a spelling sample more typical for another language. For example, the word ghost was previously spelled gast in English, until the Flemish spelling pattern was unintentionally substituted, and happened to be accepted. Most of the spelling conventions in Modern English were derived from the phonetic spelling of a family of Middle English, and loosely construct non reflect the sound changes that have occurred since the gradual 15th century such(a) as the Great Vowel Shift. As a total of this, numerous words are spelled the way that they were pronounced more than 600 years ago, instead of being spelled like they are pronounced in the 21st century.

Despite the various English dialects spoken from country to country and within different regions of the same country, there are only slight regional variations in English orthography, the two most recognised variations being British and American spelling, and its overall uniformity ensures facilitate international communication. On the other hand, it also adds to the discrepancy between the way English is calculation and spoken in any given location.


English has some words that can be written with ] is now sometimes facetiously pronounced , while in pâté, the acute accent is helpful to distinguish it from pate.

Further examples of words sometimes retaining diacritics when used in English are: Ångström partly because the scientific symbol for this item of measurement is "Å", appliqué, attaché, blasé, bric-à-brac, Brötchen, cliché, crème, crêpe, façade, fiancée, flambé, jalapeño, naïve, naïveté, née, papier-mâché, passé, piñata, protégé, résumé, risqué, über-, and voilà. raison d'être, vis-à-vis, and belles-lettres.

It was formerly common in American English to use a diaeresis to indicate a hiatus, e.g. coöperate, daïs, and reëlect. The New Yorker and Technology Review magazines still ownership it for this purpose, even though it is for increasingly rare in innovative English. Nowadays, the diaeresis is usually left out cooperate, or a hyphen is used co-operate if the hiatus is between two morphemes in a compound word. It is, however, still common in monomorphemic loanwords such as naïve and Noël.

Written accents are also used occasionally in poetry and scripts for dramatic performances to indicate that anormally unstressed syllable in a word should be stressed for dramatic effect, or to keep with the metre of the poetry. This use is frequently seen in archaic and pseudoarchaic writings with the -ed suffix, to indicate that the ⟨e⟩ should be fully pronounced, as with cursèd.

The acute and grave accents are occasionally used in poetry and lyrics: the acute to indicate stress overtly where it might be ambiguous rébel vs. rebél or nonstandard for metrical reasons caléndar; the grave to indicate that an usually silent or elided syllable is pronounced warnèd, parlìament.